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Vintage Treasures: Henry Kuttner’s “The Graveyard Rats”

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012 | Posted by John ONeill

weird-tales-march-1936-coverThis is the latest of my short fiction reviews, following my recent reports on Howard Waldrop’s “The Ugly Chickens,” George R.R. Martin’s “Nightflyers,” and others.

In honor of the recent release of the massive Henry Kuttner collection, Thunder in the Void, I thought I’d talk about Kuttner’s first published story, “The Graveyard Rats,” which appeared in the March 1936 Weird Tales — alongside The Hour of the Dragon by Robert E. Howard, Edmond Hamilton’s “In the World’s Dusk,” Clark Ashton Smith’s “The Black Abbot of Puthuum,” and “The Crystal Curse” by Eando Binder.

Quite auspicious company! I found echoes of both Howard and Lovecraft in the opening paragraphs. Here, see what you think:

Masson… recalled certain vaguely disturbing legends he had heard since coming to ancient, witch-haunted Salem — tales of a moribund, inhuman life that was said to exist in forgotten burrows in the earth. The old days, when Cotton Mather had hunted down the evil cults that worshipped Hecate and the dark Magna Mater in frightful orgies, had passed; but dark gabled houses still leaned perilously towards each other over narrow cobbled streets, and blasphemous secrets and mysteries were said to be hidden in subterranean cellars and caverns, where forgotten pagan rites were still celebrated in defiance of law and sanity. Wagging their grey heads wisely, the elders declared that there were worse things than rats and maggots crawling in the unhallowed earth of the ancient Salem cemeteries.

And then, too, there was this curious dread of the rats. Masson… had heard vague rumours of ghoulish beings that dwelt far underground, and that had the power of commanding the rats, marshalling them like horrible armies. The rats, the old men whispered, were messengers between this world and the grim and ancient caverns far below Salem. Bodies had been stolen from graves for nocturnal subterranean feasts, they said.

What a great opening. I especially enjoyed the promise of a tale of eldritch and powerful subterranean evils… although truthfully, he had me at “frightful orgies.”

The story centers on Old Masson, the caretaker of one of Salem’s oldest and most neglected cemeteries, who also happens to be a grave robber. When you set him up like that — and simultaneously drop hints in the first paragraph of “worse things than rats and maggots crawling in the unhallowed earth” — you know your protagonist is going to meet a bad end. This guy is wearing a red shirt, and no mistake.

25-modern-stories-of-mystery-and-imaginationAnyway, Old Masson is cracking open a fresh grave late one evening, when what does he spot but the corpse hastily being dragged away through a hole chewed in the bottom of the coffin. Grabbing his trusty flashlight, Masson gives chase, squeezing into the tight warren of tunnels under the graveyard, thinking only of the gold cuff links he glimpsed on the dearly departed during the funeral.

Masson, as everyone will have gathered by this point, is not going to return to the surface with the cuff links. The only question is exactly what’s going to ultimately do him in, and just how gruesome it’s going to be.

Pretty gruesome, as it turns out.

“The Graveyard Rats” is very much a 1930s-era slasher flick, albeit a very compact one at only 8 pages. That’s really the chief weakness of the story, at least for a modern reader. Other than the horrific final paragraph, in which Masson is gasping desperately for air in the dark as the horrors begin to chew, the tale is pretty predictable. Even the “ghoulish beings” promised so poetically in the opening paragraphs make only a brief on-stage appearance, and we’re never really sure what they are.

Still, for an 8-page story, “The Graveyard Rats” packs quite a wallop. Since a copy of the original issue of Weird Tales is a bit beyond my budget, I read it in The Other Worlds: 25 Modern Stories of Mystery and Imagination, Phil Strong’s 1941 anthology, which I bought for two bucks as part of Martin H. Greenberg’s enormous collection.

You can read the complete tale online here. Well worth your time.

33 Comments »

  1. “This guy is wearing a red shirt, and no mistake.”

    Well put.

    By the way, I wouldn’t have thought that “dark gabled houses still leaning perilously towards each other over narrow cobbled streets” would have automatically constituted an evil danger in the way that Kuttner seems to imply.

    Anyway, going into a tunnel full of cat-sized rats in the middle of the night seems like an ill-advised thing to do, but then there wouldn’t be any story if he had done the safe thing and stayed at home.

    Comment by Henry Ram - July 18, 2012 7:00 am

  2. John,
    When I read your article about Kuttner’s “The Graveyard Rats, I began intrigued because Robert E. Howard also wrote a short story entitled “Graveyard Rats” that appeared in the pulp magazine, Thrilling Mysteries in February 1936. It’s a horror story wrapped up in a Steve Harrison mystery. Among its many reprints is Wildside Press’: Graveyard Rats and Others and more recently, in the REH Foundation Press’ The Steve Harrison Casebook.

    Both Kuttner and Howard were part of the Lovecraft Circle. That REH’s story was published first doesn’t really say much since stories are bought months in advance of publication.

    Here is an excerpt from Howard’s version of the title:

    “For three days the hard clay soil had baked in the hot sun above the coffined form of John Wilkinson.
    “Yet from the mantel John Wilkinson’s face leered at him—white and cold and dead.
    “And before the fireplace, up and down, up and down, scampered a creature with red eyes, that squeaked and squealed—a great grey rat, maddened by its failure to reach the flesh its ghoulish hunger craved.
    “Saul Wilkinson began to laugh—horrible, soul-shaking shrieks that mingled with the squealing of the grey ghoul…They were the screams of a madman. The horror of what he had seen had blasted Saul Wilkinson’s reason like a blown-out candle flame.”

    Between Kuttner’s “grim and ancient caverns far below Salem” and Howard’s “soul-shaking shrieks and grey ghouls,” these guys really knew how to write. Interesting that they both settled on the same title and the stories were published so close together…

    Comment by Barbara Barrett - July 18, 2012 7:24 am

  3. I think the Lovecraft circle was as big a circle as the Shelley/Byron group of old.

    Comment by Wild Ape - July 18, 2012 10:11 am

  4. This story is also available in Terror in the House, the Haffner Press collection of Kuttner’s early horror stories. While a lot of his early work is a bit rough, Kuttner wasn’t afraid to experiment and push himself. By the time he hit his stride in the early 40s, he was one of the top practitioners in the sf/fantasy/horror fields.

    Comment by westkeith - July 18, 2012 10:23 am

  5. I’m currently in the middle of Terror in the House and enjoying it quite a bit, and this particular story is one of the standouts despite being his first. Kuttner is one of my favorite writers, because even when he’s not as his best he’s still very readable and fun.

    Comment by andy - July 18, 2012 12:50 pm

  6. > Anyway, going into a tunnel full of cat-sized rats in the middle of the night seems like an ill-advised thing to do, but then
    > there wouldn’t be any story if he had done the safe thing and stayed at home.

    I like a character I can talk to while I’m reading. Here, I was shouting things like “Masson, you idiot!” and “Boy, you really deserved that,” and especially “What part of ‘ghoulish beings that dwelt far underground’ did you not understand??”

    These sorts of things heighten the enjoyment for me.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 18, 2012 2:57 pm

  7. Hey Barbara,

    Wow, that’s fascinating. Those quotes are terrific — if anything, I think they make Howard’s influence on Kuttner even more clear. Or perhaps, Lovecraft’s influence on both of them. :)

    I’ll need to track down the Howard “Graveyard Rats” now.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 18, 2012 3:00 pm

  8. > I think the Lovecraft circle was as big a circle as the Shelley/Byron group of old.

    Wild Ape,

    Certainly the writers who are publicly acknowledged as part of the Lovecraft circle are fairly numerous… According to L. Sprague deCamp and S. T. Joshi, Lovecraft wrote more than 100,000 letters over thirty years, with 50-75 correspondents at any given time (!!)

    He wrote far more letters than short stories, so perhaps it’s no surprise that his influence was felt far and wide, and for several generations.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 18, 2012 3:04 pm

  9. > This story is also available in Terror in the House, the Haffner Press collection of Kuttner’s early horror stories.

    Hi Westkeith,

    Thanks — I wasn’t aware it was in the first Haffner volume, but I should have been. I’ve been more involved with THUNDER IN THE VOID recently, but I’ll have to make time for TERROR as well.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 18, 2012 3:05 pm

  10. > I’m currently in the middle of Terror in the House and enjoying it quite a bit, and
    > this particular story is one of the standouts despite being his first.

    Andy,

    To be honest, I was never really interested in TERROR IN THE HOUSE. The advertising copy makes it sounds like a collection of fiction from the weird-menace pulps (Thrilling Mystery and Spice Mystery) and those just never did anything for me. Too many helpless screaming women, too many predictable villains.

    I first tried them when I was reading the fiction of Hugh Cave. I’d love to hear Kuttner’s stories in that genre are different.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 18, 2012 3:09 pm

  11. I’m not sure I would say they’re so different from many other weird menace stories. There is one particular story, I believe it’s the second in the collection, that I found uncommonly trashy and brutal, although maybe I haven’t read enough of these. I think it’s called The Devil Rides or something like that (my copy of the book is at home). But the book also includes some Lovecraftian stories and some science fiction starts coming in midway through. It’s certainly not entirely weird menace stories, although there are plenty of those, for what that’s worth.

    Comment by andy - July 18, 2012 3:25 pm

  12. Mein Gott, that’s a lot of letters. He must have spent a small fortune on stamps. This is money he might have spent on food. I mention this because it so happens that he died in part from malnutrition.

    Comment by Henry Ram - July 18, 2012 5:00 pm

  13. This rat-related story is the first that I’ve read by Henry Kuttner, and it tempts me to want to read more of his work. For my money, however, Robert E Howard is much superior.

    I don’t ever remember reading anything by Howard that defied logic the way Kuttner’s story does.

    For example, why would the rats, after having burrowed their way to a dead man’s coffin, not have eaten the body right there in the coffin? For what purpose would they drag the body back through their tunnel? (So the young’uns could join in too?) That’s a lot of work for the little dears when they might have enjoyed their well-earned treat right there on the spot. There is also the physical impossibility of any one rat or group of rats working together to pull a human body from a coffin. They wouldn’t have the strength to do it. Perhaps something like a hundred or more rats could do it together, but there wouldn’t have been room enough for all of them there in that enclosed space.

    Another thing I didn’t understand was the presence of the flesh-eating ghoul crawling around in the tunnel. He was referred to as a former corpse from one of the coffins. How is it that his flesh was not consumed by the rats long ago? Surely he should be in a skeletal state.

    It also puzzles me why the main character waited so long to dig up the corpse for his gold cufflinks, etc. Kuttner mentioned that there was a grieving relative that kept coming to the grave in the days following the burial and this prevented him from digging up the body. Fine. But then some days later he has him digging up the body at night-time, saying that there would be no likelihood of the relative visiting then. But if the relative never visited at night anyway, why didn’t the gravedigger just dig him up on the first night following the burial? Presumably, he would then have got to the body long before the rats did.

    I wonder, could it be that the ghoul was just thrown in for sensationalistic purposes? Well, at least we can give Kuttner credit for resisting the temptation to employ a scantily clad hysterical female to be rescued in the tunnel.

    Comment by Henry Ram - July 18, 2012 7:38 pm

  14. I got stuck on the bit about Cotton Mather worrying about Hecate and the Magna Mater. Cotton Mather and his posse were mostly fixated on Satan. The idea that witches were worshipping pre-Christian deities in a gynocentric pantheon really starts with Margaret Murray in the 1920s.

    So it looks like Kuttner was probably reading Murray. Since this story appears in 1936, I’d speculate that he read Murray’s The God of the Witches, published in 1933.

    Thank you, by the way, for “The Ugly Chickens.” They were delicious.

    Comment by Sarah Avery - July 18, 2012 9:37 pm

  15. Sarah — Ah! That would be the “Miss Murray” whose book (The Witch Cult in Western Europe, I think?) was mentioned in at least one Lovecraft story, I assume.

    Comment by Joe H. - July 18, 2012 10:46 pm

  16. Henry, don’t sell Kuttner short due to the flaws of his first published story. Much of his early work had problems, but so did some of Howard’s. (For the record Howard and Kuttner/Moore, along with Brackett and Bradbury, are my four favorites.) Very few writers are perfect right out of the gate.

    The work he did in the 40s (often in collaboration with his wife C. L. Moore), while more science fiction than fantasy/horror, was some of the best ever. Try “Mimsy Were the Borogoves”, “When the Bough Breaks”, “A Gnome There Was”, “We Kill People”, the Baldy stories (collected in Mutant), “The Twonky”, the Gallagher stories (collected in The Proud Robot), or the Hogben stories to see what Kuttner could do when he was at the top of his game. Just to name a few.

    Comment by westkeith - July 19, 2012 11:05 am

  17. On Kuttner –

    Kuttner is a character of subtle ( even more so than CLM ) force in the history of early-modern WF.

    Kuttner is not an awful writer. Through entire adventure in genre he is clearly derivative of those only a bit lonely pioneers HPL, CAS, REH, while largely ignoring their ancestors.

    In a sense Kuttner is the first Robert Jordan, or Terry Brooks, or Joe Abercrombie.

    Kuttner is one of the first writers to get published, be readable and all that while seeming to pretend that Weird Tales and it’s three musketeers are the ‘big bang’ + there was nothing before them.

    Many, many ‘genre writer’ even some ‘very successful’ ones I reckon as types of Kuttner.

    Avery + Joe –

    Ah the controversial Murray!

    The works are indeed “Witch Cult in Western Europe” ( 1921 ), and it’s follow-up is “The God of The Witches” ( 1931 ).

    While those have always been controversial from an academic PoV, they are profound works in the popular PoV.

    A big part of what people ‘do with witch-craft’ or ‘magic’ in general in genre today owes itself to Murrayite theories.

    Comment by RadiantAbyss - July 19, 2012 2:09 pm

  18. Haffner Press is doing great work reprinting Kuttner’s stories. I hope they will do the same for his and C.L. Moore’s novelette “The Fairy Chessmen”.

    Comment by Mister_Alex - July 19, 2012 2:39 pm

  19. Andy,

    > I’m not sure I would say they’re so different from many other weird menace stories.

    That’s pretty much what I figured. Much of the allure of those stories at the time WAS the formula, and if you deviated too much, you couldn’t sell your story.

    I love the pulps, but the weird menace stuff just isn’t for me. Ah well.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 19, 2012 4:26 pm

  20. > Mein Gott, that’s a lot of letters. He must have spent a small fortune on stamps. This is money he might have
    > spent on food. I mention this because it so happens that he died in part from malnutrition.

    Really? I wasn’t aware of that.

    I guess I always imagined the death of HP Lovecraft as mysterious and vaguely unexplained. Now you’ve taken the mystery away.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 19, 2012 4:27 pm

  21. Henry,

    > I don’t ever remember reading anything by Howard that defied logic the way Kuttner’s story does…
    >
    > I wonder, could it be that the ghoul was just thrown in for sensationalistic purposes?

    You think? :)

    I suspect you’re right on. The opening of the story, with its promise of ancient mystery and heavy-handed supernatural dread, renders the ending a little pedestrian by comparison. Doesn’t seem he knew what to do with the ghoul.

    And you’re absolutely right that the protagonist’s actions defy logic on multiple levels. It was very, very clear to me why he crawled into that hole in the ground: to get eaten by rats and give the story an ending. There was no other reason that made sense.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 19, 2012 4:32 pm

  22. Sarah,

    > Cotton Mather and his posse were mostly fixated on Satan. The idea that witches were worshipping pre-Christian
    > deities in a gynocentric pantheon really starts with Margaret Murray in the 1920s.

    Okay, I don’t even know what a gynocentric pantheon is. Maybe you’re too educated for this story to work on you.

    When a story reveals it roots, it’s like seeing pink underwear when the plumber bends over to fix the sink. You’re supposed to pretend you didn’t see it, because that works our better for everybody.

    > Thank you, by the way, for “The Ugly Chickens.” They were delicious.

    You’re welcome. And obviously, you read the entire story. Clearly, your sense of humor is just as twisted as Waldrop’s. :)

    Comment by John ONeill - July 19, 2012 4:38 pm

  23. Westkeith,

    > Try “Mimsy Were the Borogoves”, “When the Bough Breaks”, “A Gnome There Was”, “We Kill People”, the Baldy stories
    > (collected in Mutant), “The Twonky”, the Gallagher stories (collected in The Proud Robot), or the Hogben stories

    A great list! Don’t forget “Vintage Season” (With Moore) and even the Elak of Atlantis tales. A career filled with some real gems.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 19, 2012 4:48 pm

  24. Radiant,

    > Kuttner is not an awful writer. Through entire adventure in genre he is clearly derivative…
    > In a sense Kuttner is the first Robert Jordan, or Terry Brooks, or Joe Abercrombie.

    Huh. The pulps were a pretty formulaic era, and emulating popular writers was something editors demanded, so I think virtually all the major pulp writers were derivative in some fashion early in their career.

    I wouldn’t make that generalization to the bulk of his work, though.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 19, 2012 4:59 pm

  25. Alex,

    > Haffner Press is doing great work reprinting Kuttner’s stories. I hope they will do the same for his and
    > C.L. Moore’s novelette “The Fairy Chessmen”.

    Indeed! Haffner’s volumes are really irreplaceable, and I think he’s the premiere pulp publisher/packager at the moment.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 19, 2012 5:00 pm

  26. […] the onyx and jade-encrusted editorial halls of Black Gate magazine. A mere day after John O’Neill extolled Kuttner’s “The Graveyard Rats,” I’m taking a moment to sing the praises of his “Dragon Moon.” Despite its brevity “Dragon […]

    Pingback by Black Gate » Blog Archive » Six Sought Adventure: A Half-Dozen Swords And Sorcery Short Stories Worth Your Summer Reading Time - July 19, 2012 9:10 pm

  27. “You think?

    I suspect you’re right on. The opening of the story, with its promise of ancient mystery and heavy-handed supernatural dread, renders the ending a little pedestrian by comparison. Does’t seem he knew what to do with the ghoul.

    And you’re absolutely right that the protagonist’s actions defy logic on multiple levels. It was very, very clear to me why he crawled into that hole in the ground: to get eaten by rats and give the story an ending. There was no other reason that made sense.”

    Right you are. Kuttner was determined to get his protagonist down that hole, come what may. Even if there had been a sign at the entrance saying, “Look, dum-dum. You don’t want to go down here. There are rats, lots of big rats down here, your predecessor has already mysteriously disappeared and “the elders” have declared these grounds unhallowed and certifiably ghoul-infested,” he still would have entered that tunnel.

    At this point I’d like to say a word about my boy Edgar Allen Poe. One reason he was so good was that in almost all his stories, you felt that whatever horrible thing was happening could really have happened. The progression was logical and there were no last-minute ghouls thrown in to spice things up. When he depicts one of his nightmare worlds, you usually feel as though he was there or could have been there. Just like the original Star Trek series never had a bad episode (the missing-brain episode was just a lark), EAP seemed incapable of writing a bad story.

    Come to think of it, the subject of being prematurely buried was something he wrote about in several of his stories—The Cask of Amontillado, The Premature Burial, Berenice, Fall of the House of Usher, e.g.

    In conclusion, EAP was great, damn it, so I think these stories should be read before “Graveyard Rats.” That’s not to say that Kuttner’s body of work is rubbish. I just think that when it comes to rats gnawing on your feet and the feel of the coffin lid above, Poe was the best.

    And as for genius inventors, Tesla was really better than Edison. This comic proves it:

    http://theoatmeal.com/comics/tesla

    Comment by Henry Ram - July 19, 2012 10:16 pm

  28. John, you’re right. I should have included “Vintage Season.” I’ve always preferred the Prince Raynor to the Elak tales (although not by much). They seem a little more polished that Elak. And let’s not forget one of his few novels, Fury. When you take a close look at Kuttner’s entire body of work, there are a large number of stories that could be included in such a list.

    Comment by westkeith - July 20, 2012 12:53 pm

  29. Ram,

    You’re right — that’s a great comic. Thanks for the link!

    Comment by John ONeill - July 31, 2012 9:52 pm

  30. > And let’s not forget one of his few novels, Fury.

    Have to admit I’ve never read FURY. I’ll have to dig up a copy.

    Comment by John ONeill - July 31, 2012 9:53 pm

  31. […] Vintage-treasures-henry-kuttners-the-graveyard-rats […]

    Pingback by Black Gate » Blog Archive » The Top 30 Black Gate Posts in July - August 31, 2012 1:54 am

  32. […] I discussed The Startling Worlds of Henry Kuttner and looked at his Weird Tales classic “The Graveyard Rats,” and we announced the lucky winners of the giveaway copies of Thunder in the Void, the deluxe […]

    Pingback by Black Gate » Blog Archive » Vintage Treasures: The Best of Henry Kuttner - July 29, 2013 4:18 pm

  33. […] commanded a graveyard” is. My first guess was Henry Kuttner’s famous Weird Tales debut The Graveyard Rats… but when I double-checked the Table of Contents, I discovered that story isn’t even in […]

    Pingback by Black Gate » Blog Archive » Vintage Treasures: Br-r-r-! edited by Groff Conklin - January 16, 2014 1:46 pm


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